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- And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the adornment
- And on the sixth day God ended his works which he had made; and
he rested on the seventh day from all his works which he had made.
- And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that
in it he had rested from all his works which God began to do.
- This is the book of the generations of heaven and earth
they came to be, in the day that the LORD God made the
heaven and the earth,
- And every green thing of the field before it was upon the earth,
every herb of the field before it sprang up:
for [the LORD] God had not
caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to dress it.
- But there went up a fountain
from the earth, and watered the whole
face of the land.
- And [the LORD] God formed man, dust from the ground, and
breathed into his face the breath of life; and man became a living
- And [the LORD] God planted a paradise eastward in Edem; and there
put the man whom he had formed.
- And out of the ground made [the LORD] God to grow every tree that
is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in
the midst of paradise,
and the tree of learning that which is to be
of good and evil.
- And a river went out of Edem to water paradise; and from
thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
- The name of the first is Phison: that
is it which compasseth the
whole land of Evilat, where there is gold;
- And the gold of that land is good: there is carbuncle and the
- And the name of the second river is Gehon: the same is it that
compasseth the whole land of Aethiopia.
- And the name of the third river is Tigris: that is it which
goeth over against the
Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.
- And the LORD God took the man whom he had formed,
and put him in the paradise of
delight to dress it and to keep it.
- And the LORD God commanded Adam, saying, Of every tree of
paradise thou mayest freely eat:
- But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt
not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt
- And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be
alone; I will make him an help meet for him.
- And out of the earth [the LORD] God formed yet farther
every beast of the
field, and every bird of the heaven; and brought them unto Adam to see
what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living
soul, that was the name thereof.
- And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to all the fowl of the heaven,
and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an
help like to him.
- And [the LORD] God caused a trance to fall upon Adam, and he
slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead
- And the rib, which [the LORD] God had taken from Adam, he built up into
woman, and brought her unto Adam.
- And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my
flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of her Man.
- Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall
cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
- And the two were naked, both Adam and his wife, and were not
- v. 1, "adornment":
Gk. kosmos, with obvious associations.
The word also means "orderly array".
- v. 2, "sixth":
The Masoretic Text has "seventh".
- v. 3, "began to do":
Gk. erxeto poiesai. The same phrase is
used in Acts 1:1.
- v. 4, "the book of":
Not in the Masoretic Text.
- v. 4, "LORD":
The Masoretic text distinguishes between Adonai,
"the Lord", and the Divine Name JHWH, which the
translators of the King James Bible render as
"LORD". In the LXX, both are translated as Kyrios.
Our version follows the KJV convention whenever
- v. 5, "green thing":
The Masoretic Text has instead siach,
- v. 5, "earth ... man":
In Hebrew: adamah ... adam.
- v. 6, "fountain":
Gk. pege, which can also
mean "spring" or "stream". The Masoretic Text
has the rare word
ed, usually translated "mist" or
"vapour", but considered by E. A. Speiser (BASOR
1409, 9 ) to be a Sumerian loan-word meaning
- v. 7, "man, dust":
Thus both LXX and MT, although "made from
dust" is usually understood. "Man is earth in
a suffering state, for the formation of Adam was
from the face of the earth," [Barnabas 6:9].
St. Justin Martyr [De Resurr. vii] was
among the first to use this verse against
Platonising Gnostic "spirituality", saying:
"It is evident, therefore, that man made in the image of God
was of flesh. Is it not then absurd to say that
the flesh made by God in His own image is contemptible?"
- v. 7, "face":
Masoretic Text "nostrils", a typical example of the
LXX tendency to use more abstract language.
- v. 8, "Edem":
The Hebrew is of course Eden, meaning
- v. 9, "to the sight":
Literally, "for seeing". The precise Greek words
may have been chosen for their sound: oraion
- v. 11, "Phison":
Hebrew Pishon. Some have suggested
a connection with the Phasis, according to
Herodotus (4, 37, 45) a river in the
neighbourhood of Colchis.
- v. 11, "Evilat":
- v. 12, "carbuncle":
Gk. anthrax usually means coal or charcoal
but occasionally refers to an unidentified dark red
gemstone, possibly a ruby or garnet, known in Latin as a
carbunculum, "little coal". Aristotle (De Meteor.
iv 387(b)18) says that "carbuncle" is more resistant to fire
than any other gemstone. The Masoretic Text has
bdolach, the meaning of which is uncertain. It has
often been suggested that bdolach is the aromatic tree-gum
known to the classical world by the foreign name "bdellium";
if so, one must wonder why the LXX translators did not simply use
- v. 12, "light green stone":
Gk. lithos prasinos, perhaps
meaning "emerald", although a specific word for emerald
exists. The Masoretic Text has eben ha-shoham,
translated "onyx" in the KJV but also more probably "emerald".
- v. 13, "Gehon":
- v. 13, "Aethiopia":
Hebrew Kush. Those who wish to
locate Eden in Mesopotamia often claim
that Kush here is not African or Indian
Cush, as understood by the LXX, but the
land of the Cassites.
- v. 14, "Tigris":
Hebrew Chidekel; both perhaps from the
Akkadian Idiqlat, according to E. A. Speiser.
- v. 14, "Euphrates":
- v. 15, "of delight":
Here the LXX translates eden rather than
treating it as a place-name.
- v. 17, "surely die":
Gk. thanato apothanetesthe, Hebrew
muth tha-muth. Both mean literally something
like "die of death", but with a greater intensity
than the English phrase suggests.
- v. 18, "meet for him":
Gk. kat' avton using kata
in the sense of "according to, corresponding to".
The Masoretic Text has ezer knegdo,
"help of his like".
- v. 19, "yet farther":
Presumably meant to clarify the problem that
the animals have already been created. The word is
absent in the Masoretic Text.
- v. 20, "gave names":
Gk. ekalesen onomata, which could mean
either "gave names" or "called by name" or even
"called out the names".
- v. 21, "trance":
- v. 22, "built up":
Gk. ojkodomesen, "built" [a house, etc.].
The same idea is conveyed in the Hebrew: banah.
- v. 23, "Woman ... Man":
Hebrew ishah ... ish. In both the LXX
and the Masoretic, this is the only
verse in the chapter where the text uses
the specifically male word for "man", also
meaning "husband" in both languages.
Orthodox Library, St. Leontius of Tripoli, 2006.
Have mercy, O Lord, upon Thy servants
the scribe John, the priest John, the people of New York City,
and the parishioners of the temple of Saint Andrew in Lubbock.
THE END, AND TO GOD BE THE GLORY!