[St. Pachomius Library]

Stephen IX/X, Pope of Rome

XI Century
Born Frederick of Lorraine c. 1000, Stephen IX/X was abbot of Monte Cassino when he was elected to the papacy in 1057. A cousin of Leo IX, who had appointed him papal chancellor and librarian in 1051, Frederick accompanied Leo on his campaign against the Normans and was papal legate to Constantinople three years later. Stephen was interested in the Patarines, a group that wanted to end simony and to enforce clerical celibacy, and convened a synod to address the issues. He hoped to end the schism with Constantinople that became final while he was papal legate there by uniting the sees against the Normans. Stephen died in 1058, while planning to finance a war against the Normans with the treasury of Monte Cassino. He was also planning to crown his brother Godfrey Holy Roman Emperor.

Karen Rae Keck


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